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Reference Details
Lopez-Anido R, Michael A, Goodell B, Sandford T 2004. "Assessment of wood pile deterioration due to marine organisms", Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering: 70-76.

In this paper a description of the major groups of marine organisms causing significant wood pile damage is presented. These organisms are divided into two groups: (1) fungi and (2) marine borers. The basic physical and biological characteristics of these organisms are presented, as well as the type of damage that they cause in marine wood piles. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to characterize deterioration of wood piles due to marine organisms and to assess damage in the wood pile zones of a typical waterfront installation. Marine borer activity in Maine coastal waters is assessed through a survey directed to harbor masters; the results of the survey are correlated with historic data. In order to illustrate the type and extent of wood pile deterioration, two case studies in Maine harbors are presented.
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