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Reference Details
Landis EN, Vasic S, Davids WG, Parrod P 2002. "Coupled experiments and simulations of microstructural damage in wood", Experimental Mechanics: 389-394.

Abstract:
In this paper, we explore ways to couple experimental measurements with the numerical simulations of the mechanical properties of wood. For our numerical simulations, we have adopted a lattice approach, where wood fibers or bundles of wood fibers are modeled as discrete structural elements connected by a lattice of spring elements. Element strength and stiffness properties are determined from bulk material properties. Damage is represented by broken lattice elements, which cause both stiffness and strength degradation. The modeling approach was applied to small specimens of spruce subjected to transverse uniaxial tension, and mode I transverse splitting. The model was found to be good at predicting the load-deformation response of both notched and unnotched specimens, including the post-peak softening response. In addition, the damage patterns predicted by the model are consistent with those observed in the experiments.
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