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Reference Details
Herzog B, Goodell B, Lopez-Anido R, Muszynski L, Gardner DJ, Halteman W, Qian Y 2004. "The effect of creosote and copper naphtenate preservative systems on the adhesive bondlines of FRP/glulam composites beams", Forest Products Journal, 54(10): 82-90.

Reinforcement of a glulam beam with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) does not negate the need for preservative treatment, especially when these materials are to be used in high decay hazard environments. Reinforcement of structural wood components with FRP will enhance the beam's strength, but actual data on long-term durability is sparse and not well documented, and in cases where data is available, it is not readily accessible. In this study, bond properties of FRP-wood composite materials were investigated following treatment with creosote or copper naphthenate preservatives. The properties investigated included: shear stress and the percentage of wood failure experienced in shear, and the delamination of the FRP-wood interface when subjected to an accelerated-aging test. When tested in a wet condition (following a vacuum/pressure soak), creosote-treatment adversely affected the wood failure values associated with specimens fabricated with a pultruded FRP composite sheet (E-glass fiber, bonded with urethane) during the shear testing. When these tests were conducted with samples under ambient conditions, the shear strength of this material was also adversely affected by creosote. In addition, both creosote- and copper napthenate-treatment adversely affected the shear strength of a SCRIMP fabricated FRP material (carbon fiber, vinyl ester matrix). Creosote-treatment promoted the delamination of the pultruded FRP composite and a continuous laminated FRP composite flat-sheet (E-glass fiber, bonded with epoxy) from glulam material when subjected to accelerated-aging tests. In some cases the delamination percentages were very large. An analysis of the 1 percent delamination threshold level for individual softwood adhesive bondlines is provided for FRP-wood bonding.
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